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Each child is different from one another. Each child has a unique physical, cognitive, social and emotional structure. Some children show insufficiency in cognitive behavior, affective characteristics, communication skills and motor functions. One or more deficiencies in these areas of development may adversely affect the child. General education services are inadequate and special education services are needed for children who are adversely affected by their inadequacies in developmental areas.
Special educationIt is expressed as a whole of educational services provided individually to the students who differ significantly from the average student characteristics and aiming to maximize the possibility of the individual to live independently. Students with special needs, in other words, students with special needs, people with mental disabilities, people with learning disabilities, people with emotional and behavioral disabilities, people with physical disabilities, people with emotional and behavioral disabilities, speech and language problems, hearing impaired, gifted students and gifted students. are divided into groups.
Children with intellectual disabilities are the most popular group among children with disabilities. However, it cannot be said that these children are sufficiently recognized by society. There are even some unrealistic prejudices and beliefs about these children. Children with mental disabilities are generally considered as a homogeneous group in society. Moreover, when mental disability is mentioned, severe cases come to mind. However, children with intellectual disabilities show important individual differences in themselves depending on the inherited traits, medical treatment, education and environmental facilities provided. Among these differences, the majority of the mentally handicapped are children and adolescents, who are slightly retarded than their peers. They cannot be easily recognized. In this case, they cannot benefit from the special services and training facilities they need. Therefore, defining the state of mental disability is important. If we examine what mental disability means, it is the committee that is known as American Assocation Mental Retardation. "Gerizekalılık" his definition by using the term stands out; “gerizekalılık present significant limitations in current functions. It is significantly sub-normal in mental functions, as well as adaptive skills related to mental functions (communication, self-care, home life, social skills, community usefulness, self-management, health and safety, functional academic skills, leisure and work). more is the case of showing limitations. Retardation occurs before the age of 18. ”
As it is understood from the definition, the special education needs of mentally retarded individuals focus on functional academic skills and independent life skills. Functional academic skills are intended to be used in the daily life, at home, in the community and in the environment for the individual. Independent living skills include the skills necessary for an individual to survive without being dependent on others.
Daily life skills consist of skills related to the individual and his / her environment within the scope of independent life skills. Daily life skills include all the functions necessary to sustain life such as food preparation, storage, placement, cleaning, cooking, washing dishes, washing clothes, ironing, sewing, traveling, buying, going to the doctor, and using the convenience store. use of community resources. The mentally retarded individual is in constant interaction in the society in which he / she lives. Individuals with intellectual disabilities are able to live and be accepted independently in the society to the extent that they can express themselves and meet their needs independently. For this, the individual needs to be able to gain daily life skills.
Normal children can acquire daily life skills through developmental stages through models such as parents or opportunities given to them. Children with mental disabilities, however, often lack the opportunities given to normal children. Because families do not have enough information about how the mentally retarded child can acquire daily life skills. Families often do this for themselves rather than for children with mental disabilities. Mental disability as well as negative attitudes of parents and the environment and lack of systematic experiences can affect and delay the ability of children with intellectual disabilities to gain daily life skills. Therefore, the ability of children with intellectual disabilities to acquire daily life skills requires special arrangements.