What is allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

What is allergic rhinitis (hay fever)?

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Rhinitis is the inflammatory reaction of the tissue called the mucosa that lays the inner part of the nose. Almost half of the rhinitis is due to allergies. Allergic rhinitis is a non-microbial inflammation of the nose of a person with sensitivity to this allergy when an allergen in the environment is taken to the nose during breathing and adheres to the inner surface of the nose.

The disease was defined as 'hay fever' with a misnomer in the early stages, and later the disease was found to be related to pollen, but the term 'hay fever' continued to be used.

What is the incidence of allergic rhinitis?

It is the most common allergic disease. It affects about 20% of the population. Every year, many people suffer from allergic rhinitis. Some of them get through very lightly, some are too heavy for others, they interfere with their jobs and impair the quality of life. Symptoms of rhinitis - runny nose, sneezing, nasal itching, nasal congestion, reduced smell, tearing and fatigue. Indirect rhinitis symptoms such as difficulty in perception and sleep disturbance also negatively affect daily life. The disease can occur at any age, but usually starts between 1 and 20 years of age. Mostly, the family has the same or similar diseases.

What are the Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis?

The main complaints and findings are as follows:
Itchy nose, watering -transparent-
Sneezing, sneezing bouts
Itching on the palate
Cough and sore throat
Request to clear throat
Itching and watery eyes

Allergic Rinite Which Allergens Cause?

Animal and plant proteins that are small and light enough to be carried in the air accumulate on the membranes in our eyes, nose and throat. Pollen, fungal spores, animal feathers and house dust are the most common of these particles. Allergic rhinitis in the early spring is often caused by pollens or trees commonly found in the environment. In late spring, pollen originates from meadows.
Colorful ornamental plants rarely cause allergies because their pollen is too heavy to carry with air.
Molds are molds that mold the bread and cause the fruit to spoil. They are also found in dry leaves, meadows, straw, seeds and other plants and soil. Since they are cold resistant, the allergy season is long and all year long sports are in the air, except when the snow covers the soil. In the house, molds live in house plants and in their potted soil. They are found in cheese and fermented drinks, as well as in damp places such as basements and laundry rooms.

Are there any types of allergic rhinitis?

Allergic rhinitis can be classified as follows:
Seasonal allergic rhinitis

It occurs as a result of allergies to tree pollen, meadow pollen and weed pollen. Complaints are evident at times when these allergens are intense in the atmosphere. The duration of the disease during the year is closely related to the geographical region and climate. Patients are generally comfortable outside the pollen season. Tree pollen in early spring, meadow pollen in late spring and early summer, and weed pollen from mid-summer to autumn can cause these complaints.

Allergic Rhinitis Continuing Throughout The Year

It is a form of allergic rhinitis where contact with allergens continues throughout the year and complaints usually spread throughout the year. Caused allergens are house dust mites, cockroaches, pet allergens (such as cats, dogs, hamsters), and fungal spores (mold). The most important allergens are house dust mites. Continuous exposure to mite allergens in the patient's environment causes complaints to continue throughout the year. Cockroaches are also an important source of domestic allergens. People with allergies, rhinitis complaints occur when exposed to cockroach allergens. Another domestic allergen is pet allergens. Cat antigens are particularly important. It can survive for months in the infected environment. Not only at home, but also at school, workplace and public transport. In addition, exposure to domestic fungi will trigger complaints in fungal (mold) allergy sufferers.

Occupational Allergic Rhinitis

It is due to allergens or irritants in the working environment. Allergic rhinitis symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose and nasal congestion occur after entering the working environment. Patients are comfortable on weekends and holidays.

Is Allergic Rhinitis Associated with Other Allergic Diseases?

Approximately 30-40% of patients with hay fever may have bronchial tenderness and allergic asthma, and less commonly, other allergic diseases.

How is allergic rhinitis diagnosed?

Diagnosis is made by examining the patient's history, physical examination findings, allergy skin test and nasal mucosa swab.

What is the treatment of allergic rhinitis?

Treatment can be grouped under 4 separate headings:
1-Stopping contact with allergen stimuli,
2-Drug treatment,
3-Hyposensibilization (vaccine treatment),
4-Surgical treatment

Stopping contact with allergen stimuli

The main method of treatment of allergic rhinitis is to prevent allergen as in all allergic diseases. In pollen allergy this is not easy and cannot be fully realized.
Measures to be taken to protect against pollen;
Do not go outdoors between 05.00 and 10.00 in the mornings when the pollen flies the most. However, you can go out with masks that cover the mouth and nose. Do not sport outdoors in pollen time. Hair keeps dust. So wash your hair every night and take a shower. So you can get rid of the dust. When children come from the street, have them change immediately. Do not open the windows while driving. Use the air conditioner for air exchange. Pollen time at home, close your doors and windows tightly. Replace the A / C filter frequently, if available in your home and office. Pollen filters have been used in most air conditioners in recent years. It is useful to refresh these filters as they wear out. This prevents dust from coming out. Choose the seaside for the holidays. Wear glasses and hats outside. Wash the glasses daily under running water. Don't take your everyday clothes off in the bedroom. Consult a doctor for allergies. Avoid mowing the lawn or wearing a mask. However, even if these measures are fully implemented, their effectiveness is quite low. To avoid house dust mite, avoiding the humid environment, at least removing carpet, air conditioner and similar dust-holding items in the bedroom, cleaning wet floors, not being in the environment while cleaning, using mattress, quilt and pillow case that do not pass mite allergen are the main measures.


As a result of a careful examination by your Ear-Nose-Throat specialist, your doctor will decide whether any infection or a structural disorder is causing your complaints and the appropriate treatment for them. The medicines used in the treatment of allergies are:
the chromalyn
Cortisone drugs
These medications can be used individually or in combination according to the advice of your doctor.

Vaccine treatment:

Despite attempts to stop contact with allergens and drug treatment
if complaints persist for more than two years. The procedure is done by administering certain amounts of the allergen to the body.
Surgical treatment:

It is intended for underlying or later developing overgrown nasal flesh or polyps.

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